Documentation

Antrea OVS Pipeline

Terminology

  • Node Route Controller: the K8s controller which is part of the Antrea agent and watches for updates to Nodes. When a Node is added, it updates the local networking configuration (e.g. configure the tunnel to the new Node). When a Node is deleted, it performs the necessary clean-ups.
  • peer Node: this is how we refer to other Nodes in the cluster, to which the local Node is connected through a Geneve, VXLAN, GRE, or STT tunnel.
  • Global Virtual MAC: a virtual MAC address which is used as the destination MAC for all tunnelled traffic across all Nodes. This simplifies networking by enabling all Nodes to use this MAC address instead of the actual MAC address of the appropriate remote gateway. This enables each vSwitch to act as a "proxy" for the local gateway when receiving tunnelled traffic and directly take care of the packet forwarding. At the moment, we use an hard-coded value of aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff.
  • Antrea-native Policies: Antrea ClusterNetworkPolicy and Antrea NetworkPolicy CRDs, as documented here.
  • normal action: OpenFlow defines this action to submit a packet to "the traditional non-OpenFlow pipeline of the switch". That is, if a flow uses this action, then the packets in the flow go through the switch in the same way that they would if OpenFlow was not configured on the switch. Antrea uses this action to process ARP traffic as a regular learning L2 switch would.
  • table-miss flow entry: a "catch-all" entry in a OpenFlow table, which is used if no other flow is matched. If the table-miss flow entry does not exist, by default packets unmatched by flow entries are dropped (discarded).
  • conjunctive match fields: an efficient way in OVS to implement conjunctive matches, that is a match for which we have multiple fields, each one with a set of acceptable values. See OVS fields for more information.
  • conntrack: a connection tracking module that can be used by OVS to match on the state of a TCP, UDP, ICMP, etc., connection. See the OVS Conntrack tutorial for more information.
  • dmac table: a traditional L2 switch has a "dmac" table which maps learned destination MAC address to the appropriate egress port. It is often the same physical table as the "smac" table (which matches on the source MAC address and initiate MAC learning if the address is unknown).

This document currently makes the following assumptions:

  • Antrea is used in encap mode (an overlay network is created between all Nodes)
  • AntreaProxy is disabled
  • All the Nodes are Linux Nodes

Dumping the Flows

This guide includes a representative flow dump for every table in the pipeline, in order to illustrate the function of each table. If you have a cluster running Antrea, you can dump the flows for a given Node as follows:

kubectl exec -n kube-system <ANTREA_AGENT_POD_NAME> -c antrea-ovs -- ovs-ofctl dump-flows <BRIDGE_NAME> [--no-stats] [--names]

where <ANTREA_AGENT_POD_NAME> is the name of the Antrea Agent Pod running on that Node and <BRIDGE_NAME> is the name of the bridge created by Antrea (br-int by default).

Registers

We use 2 32-bit OVS registers to carry information throughout the pipeline:

  • reg0 (NXM_NX_REG0):
    • bits [0..15] are used to store the traffic source (from tunnel: 0, from local gateway: 1, from local Pod: 2). It is set in the ClassifierTable.
    • bit 16 is used to indicate whether the destination MAC address of a packet is "known", i.e. corresponds to an entry in L2ForwardingCalcTable, which is essentially a "dmac" table.
  • reg1 (NXM_NX_REG1): it is used to store the egress OF port for the packet. It is set by DNATTable for traffic destined to services and by L2ForwardingCalcTable otherwise. It is consumed by L2ForwardingOutTable to output each packet to the correct port.

Network Policy Implementation

Several tables of the pipeline are dedicated to K8s Network Policy implementation (EgressRuleTable, EgressDefaultTable, IngressRuleTable and IngressDefaultTable).

The Antrea implementation of K8s Network Policy, including the communication channel between the Controller and Agents, and how a Network Policy is mapped to OVS flows at each Node, will be described in details in a separate document. For the present document, we will use the Network Policy example below, and explain how these simple ingress and egress rules map to individual flows as we describe the relevant tables of our pipeline.

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: NetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: test-network-policy
  namespace: default
spec:
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  policyTypes:
  - Ingress
  - Egress
  ingress:
  - from:
    - podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: nginx
    ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
  egress:
  - to:
    - podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: nginx
    ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80

This Network Policy is applied to all Pods with the nginx app label in the default namespace. For these Pods, it only allows TCP traffic on port 80 from and to Pods which also have the nginx app label. Because Antrea will only install OVS flows for this Network Policy on Nodes for which some of the Pods are the target of the policy, we have scheduled 2 nginx Pods on the same Node. They received IP addresses 10.10.1.2 and 10.10.1.3 from the Antrea CNI, so you will see these addresses show up in the OVS flows.

Antrea-native Policies Implementation

In addition to the above tables created for K8s NetworkPolicy, Antrea creates additional dedicated tables to support the Antrea-native policies (AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable and AntreaPolicyIngressRuleTable).

Consider the following Antrea ClusterNetworkPolicy (ACNP) in the Application tier as an example for the remainder of this document.

apiVersion: security.antrea.tanzu.vmware.com/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: cnp0
spec:
  priority: 10
  tier: application # defaults to application tier if not specified
  appliedTo:
    - podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: server
  ingress:
    - action: Drop
      from:
        - podSelector:
            matchLabels:
              app: notClient
      ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
  egress:
    - action: Allow
      to:
        - podSelector:
            matchLabels:
              app: dns
      ports:
        - protocol: UDP
          port: 53

This ACNP is applied to all Pods with the app: server label in all Namespaces. For these Pods, it drops TCP traffic on port 80 from all Pods which have the app: notClient label. In addition to the ingress rules, this policy also allows egress UDP traffic on port 53 to all Pods with the label app: dns. Similar to K8s NetworkPolicy, Antrea will only install OVS flows for this ACNP on Nodes for which some of the Pods are the target of the policy. Thus, we have scheduled three Pods (appServer, appDns, appNotClient) on the same Node and they have the following IP addresses: - appServer: 10.10.1.6 - appNotClient: 10.10.1.7 - appDns: 10.10.1.8

Tables

OVS pipeline

ClassifierTable (0)

This table is used to determine which "category" of traffic (tunnel, local gateway or local Pod) the packet belongs to. This is done by matching on the ingress port for the packet. The appropriate value is then written to bits [0..15] of the NXM_NX_REG0 register: 0 for tunnel, 1 for local gateway and 2 for local Pod. This information is used by matches in subsequent tables.

If you dump the flows for this table, you may see the following:

1. table=0, priority=200,in_port=antrea-gw0 actions=load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[0..15],goto_table:10
2. table=0, priority=200,in_port=antrea-tun0 actions=load:0->NXM_NX_REG0[0..15],goto_table:30
3. table=0, priority=190,in_port="coredns5-8ec607" actions=load:0x2->NXM_NX_REG0[0..15],goto_table:10
4. table=0, priority=190,in_port="coredns5-9d9530" actions=load:0x2->NXM_NX_REG0[0..15],goto_table:10
5. table=0, priority=0 actions=drop

Flow 1 is for traffic coming in on the local gateway. Flow 2 is for traffic coming in through an overlay tunnel (i.e. from another Node). The next two flows (3 and 4) are for local Pods (in this case Pods from the coredns deployment).

Local traffic then goes to SpoofGuardTable, while tunnel traffic from other Nodes goes to ConntrackTable. The table-miss flow entry will drop all unmatched packets (in practice this flow entry should almost never be used).

SpoofGuardTable (10)

This table prevents IP and ARP spoofing from local Pods. For each Pod (as identified by the ingress port), we ensure that: * for IP traffic, the source IP and MAC addresses are correct, i.e. match the values configured on the interface when Antrea set-up networking for the Pod. * for ARP traffic, the advertised IP and MAC addresses are correct, i.e. match the values configured on the interface when Antrea set-up networking for the Pod.

Because Antrea currently relies on kube-proxy to load-balance traffic destined to services, implementing that kind of IP spoofing check for traffic coming-in on the local gateway port is not as trivial. Traffic from local Pods destined to services will first go through the gateway, get load-balanced by the kube-proxy datapath (DNAT) then sent back through the gateway. This means that legitimate traffic can be received on the gateway port with a source IP belonging to a local Pod. We may add some fine-grained rules in the future to accommodate for this, but for now we just allow all IP traffic received from the gateway. We do have an ARP spoofing check for the gateway however, since there is no reason for the host to advertise a different MAC address on antrea-gw0.

If you dump the flows for this table, you may see the following:

1. table=10, priority=200,ip,in_port=antrea-gw0 actions=goto_table:30
2. table=10, priority=200,arp,in_port=antrea-gw0,arp_spa=10.10.0.1,arp_sha=e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1 actions=goto_table:20
3. table=10, priority=200,ip,in_port="coredns5-8ec607",dl_src=12:9e:a6:47:d0:70,nw_src=10.10.0.2 actions=goto_table:30
4. table=10, priority=200,ip,in_port="coredns5-9d9530",dl_src=ba:a8:13:ca:ed:cf,nw_src=10.10.0.3 actions=goto_table:30
5. table=10, priority=200,arp,in_port="coredns5-8ec607",arp_spa=10.10.0.2,arp_sha=12:9e:a6:47:d0:70 actions=goto_table:20
6. table=10, priority=200,arp,in_port="coredns5-9d9530",arp_spa=10.10.0.3,arp_sha=ba:a8:13:ca:ed:cf actions=goto_table:20
7. table=10, priority=0 actions=drop

After this table, ARP traffic goes to ARPResponderTable, while IP traffic goes to ConntrackTable. Traffic which does not match any of the rules described above will be dropped by the table-miss flow entry.

ARPResponderTable (20)

The main purpose of this table is to reply to ARP requests from the local gateway asking for the MAC address of a remote peer gateway (another Node's gateway). This ensures that the local Node can reach any remote Pod, which in particular is required for service traffic which has been load-balanced to a remote Pod backend by kube-proxy. Note that the table is programmed to reply to such ARP requests with a "Global Virtual MAC" ("Global" because it is used by all Antrea OVS bridges), and not with the actual MAC address of the remote gateway. This ensures that once the traffic is received by the remote OVS bridge, it can be directly forwarded to the appropriate Pod without actually going through the gateway. The Virtual MAC is used as the destination MAC address for all the traffic being tunnelled.

If you dump the flows for this table, you may see the following:

1. table=20, priority=200,arp,arp_tpa=10.10.1.1,arp_op=1 actions=move:NXM_OF_ETH_SRC[]->NXM_OF_ETH_DST[],mod_dl_src:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff,load:0x2->NXM_OF_ARP_OP[],move:NXM_NX_ARP_SHA[]->NXM_NX_ARP_THA[],load:0xaabbccddeeff->NXM_NX_ARP_SHA[],move:NXM_OF_ARP_SPA[]->NXM_OF_ARP_TPA[],load:0xa0a0101->NXM_OF_ARP_SPA[],IN_PORT
2. table=20, priority=190,arp actions=NORMAL
3. table=20, priority=0 actions=drop

Flow 1 is the "ARP responder" for the peer Node whose local Pod subnet is 10.10.1.0/24. If we were to look at the routing table for the local Node, we would see the following "onlink" route:

10.10.1.0/24 via 10.10.1.1 dev antrea-gw0 onlink

A similar route is installed on the gateway (antrea-gw0) interface every time the Antrea Node Route Controller is notified that a new Node has joined the cluster. The route must be marked as "onlink" since the kernel does not have a route to the peer gateway 10.10.1.1: we trick the kernel into believing that 10.10.1.1 is directly connected to the local Node, even though it is on the other side of the tunnel.

Flow 2 ensures that OVS handle the remainder of ARP traffic as a regular L2 learning switch (using the normal action). In particular, this takes care of forwarding ARP requests and replies between local Pods.

The table-miss flow entry (flow 3) will drop all other packets. This flow should never be used because only ARP traffic should go to this table, and ARP traffic will either match flow 1 or flow 2.

ConntrackTable (30)

The sole purpose of this table is to invoke the ct action on all packets and set the ct_zone (connection tracking context) to an hard-coded value, then forward traffic to ConntrackStateTable. If you dump the flows for this table, you should only see 1 flow:

1. table=30, priority=200,ip actions=ct(table=31,zone=65520)

A ct_zone is simply used to isolate connection tracking rules. It is similar in spirit to the more generic Linux network namespaces, but ct_zone is specific to conntrack and has less overhead.

After invoking the ct action, packets will be in the "tracked" (trk) state and all connection tracking fields will be set to the correct value. Packets will then move on to ConntrackStateTable.

Refer to this document for more information on connection tracking in OVS.

ConntrackStateTable (31)

This table handles all "tracked" packets (all packets are moved to the tracked state by the previous table, ConntrackTable). It serves the following purposes:

  • keeps track of connections initiated through the gateway port, i.e. for which the first packet of the connection (SYN packet for TCP) was received through the gateway. For all reply packets belonging to such connections we overwrite the destination MAC to the local gateway MAC to ensure that they get forwarded though the gateway port. This is required to handle the following cases:
    • reply traffic for connections from a local Pod to a ClusterIP Service, which are handled by kube-proxy and go through DNAT. In this case the destination IP address of the reply traffic is the Pod which initiated the connection to the Service (no SNAT by kube-proxy). We need to make sure that these packets are sent back through the gateway so that the source IP can be rewritten to the ClusterIP ("undo" DNAT). If we do not use connection tracking and do not rewrite the destination MAC, reply traffic from the backend will go directly to the originating Pod without going first through the gateway and kube-proxy. This means that the reply traffic will arrive at the originating Pod with the incorrect source IP (it will be set to the backend's IP instead of the service IP).
    • when hair-pinning is involved, i.e. for connections between 2 local Pods and for which NAT is performed. One example is a Pod accessing a NodePort Service for which externalTrafficPolicy is set to Local using the local Node's IP address, as there will be no SNAT for such traffic. Another example could be hostPort support, depending on how the feature is implemented.
  • drop packets reported as invalid by conntrack

If you dump the flows for this table, you should see the following:

1. table=31, priority=210,ct_state=-new+trk,ct_mark=0x20,ip,reg0=0x1/0xffff actions=goto_table:40
2. table=31, priority=200,ct_state=+inv+trk,ip actions=drop
3. table=31, priority=200,ct_state=-new+trk,ct_mark=0x20,ip actions=mod_dl_dst:e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1,goto_table:40
4. table=31, priority=0 actions=goto_table:40

Flows 1 and 3 implement the destination MAC rewrite described above. Note that at this stage we have not committed any connection yet. We commit all connections after enforcing Network Policies, in ConntrackCommitTable. This is also when we set the ct_mark to 0x20 for connections initiated through the gateway.

Flow 2 drops invalid traffic. All non-dropped traffic finally goes to the DNATTable.

DNATTable (40)

At the moment this table's only job is to send traffic destined to services through the local gateway, without any modifications. kube-proxy will then take care of load-balancing the connections across the different backends for each service.

If you dump the flows for this table, you should see something like this:

1. table=40, priority=200,ip,nw_dst=10.96.0.0/12 actions=load:0x2->NXM_NX_REG1[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[16],goto_table:105
2. table=40, priority=0 actions=goto_table:45

In the example above, 10.96.0.0/12 is the service CIDR (this is the default value used by kubeadm init). This flow is not actually required for forwarding, but to bypass EgressRuleTable and EgressDefaultTable for service traffic on its way to kube-proxy through the gateway. If we omitted this flow, such traffic would be unconditionally dropped if a Network Policy is applied on the originating Pod. For such traffic, we instead enforce Network Policy egress rules when packets come back through the gateway and the destination IP has been rewritten by kube-proxy (DNAT to a backend for the service). We cannot output the service traffic to the gateway port directly as we haven't committed the connection yet; instead we store the port in NXM_NX_REG1 - similarly to how we process non-service traffic in L2ForwardingCalcTable - and forward it to ConntrackCommitTable. By committing the connection we ensure that reply traffic (traffic from the service backend which has already gone through kube-proxy for source IP rewrite) will not be dropped because of Network Policies.

The table-miss flow entry (flow 2) for this table forwards all non-service traffic to the next table, EgressRuleTable.

In the future this table may support an additional mode of operations, in which it will implement kube-proxy functionality and take care of performing load-balancing / DNAT on traffic destined to services.

AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable (45)

For this table, you will need to keep in mind the ACNP specification that we are using.

This table is used to implement the egress rules across all Antrea-native policies, except for policies that are created in the Baseline Tier. Antrea-native policies created in the Baseline Tier will be enforced after K8s NetworkPolicies, and their egress rules are installed in the EgressDefaultTable and EgressRuleTable respectively, i.e.

Baseline Tier     ->  EgressDefaultTable(60)
K8s NetworkPolicy ->  EgressRuleTable(50)
All other Tiers   ->  AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable(45)

Since the example ACNP resides in the Application tier, if you dump the flows for table 45, you should see something like this:

1. table=45, priority=64990,ct_state=-new+est,ip actions=resubmit(,61)
2. table=45, priority=14000,conj_id=1,ip actions=load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG5[],ct(commit,table=61,zone=65520,exec(load:0x1->NXM_NX_CT_LABEL[32..63]))
3. table=45, priority=14000,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.6 actions=conjunction(1,1/3)
4. table=45, priority=14000,ip,nw_dst=10.10.1.8 actions=conjunction(1,2/3)
5. table=45, priority=14000,udp,tp_dst=53 actions=conjunction(1,3/3)
6. table=45, priority=0 actions=resubmit(,50)

Similar to K8s NetworkPolicy implementation, AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable also relies on the OVS built-in conjunction action to implement policies efficiently.

The above example flows read as follow: if the source IP address is in set {10.10.1.6}, and the destination IP address is in the set {10.10.1.8}, and the destination TCP port is in the set {53}, then use the conjunction action with id 1, which stores the conj_id 1 in ct_label[32..63] for egress metrics collection purposes, and forwards the packet to EgressMetricsTable, then L3ForwardingTable. Otherwise, go to EgressRuleTable if no conjunctive flow above priority 0 is matched. This corresponds to the case where the packet is not matched by any of the Antrea-native policy egress rules in any tier (except for the "baseline" tier).

If the conjunction action is matched, packets are "allowed" or "dropped" based on the action field of the policy rule. If allowed, they follow a similar path as described in the following EgressRuleTable section.

Unlike the default of K8s NetworkPolicies, Antrea-native policies have no such default rules. Hence, they are evaluated as-is, and there is no need for a AntreaPolicyEgressDefaultTable.

EgressRuleTable (50)

For this table, you will need to keep mind the Network Policy specification that we are using. We have 2 Pods running on the same Node, with IP addresses 10.10.1.2 to 10.10.1.3. They are allowed to talk to each other using TCP on port 80, but nothing else.

This table is used to implement the egress rules across all Network Policies. If you dump the flows for this table, you should see something like this:

1. table=50, priority=210,ct_state=-new+est,ip actions=goto_table:70
2. table=50, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.2 actions=conjunction(2,1/3)
3. table=50, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.3 actions=conjunction(2,1/3)
4. table=50, priority=200,ip,nw_dst=10.10.1.2 actions=conjunction(2,2/3)
5. table=50, priority=200,ip,nw_dst=10.10.1.3 actions=conjunction(2,2/3)
6. table=50, priority=200,tcp,tp_dst=80 actions=conjunction(2,3/3)
7. table=50, priority=190,conj_id=2,ip actions=load:0x2->NXM_NX_REG5[],ct(commit,table=61,zone=65520,exec(load:0x2->NXM_NX_CT_LABEL[32..63]))
8. table=50, priority=0 actions=goto_table:60

Notice how we use the OVS built-in conjunction action to implement policies efficiently. This enables us to do a conjunctive match across multiple dimensions (source IP, destination IP, port) efficiently without "exploding" the number of flows. By definition of a conjunctive match, we have at least 2 dimensions. For our use-case we have at most 3 dimensions.

The only requirements on conj_id is for it to be a unique 32-bit integer within the table. At the moment we use a single custom allocator, which is common to all tables that can have NetworkPolicy flows installed (45, 50, 60, 85, 90 and 100). This is why conj_id is set to 2 in the above example (1 was allocated for the egress rule of our Antrea-native NetworkPolicy example in the previous section).

The above example flows read as follow: if the source IP address is in set {10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3}, and the destination IP address is in the set {10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3}, and the destination TCP port is in the set {80}, then use the conjunction action with id 2, which goes to EgressMetricsTable, and then L3ForwardingTable. Otherwise, packet goes to EgressDefaultTable.

If the Network Policy specification includes exceptions (except field), then the table will include multiple flows with conjunctive match, corresponding to each CIDR that is present in from or to fields, but not in except field. Network Policy implementation details are not covered in this document.

If the conjunction action is matched, packets are "allowed" and forwarded directly to L3ForwardingTable. Other packets go to EgressDefaultTable. If a connection is established - as a reminder all connections are committed in ConntrackCommitTable - its packets go straight to L3ForwardingTable, with no other match required (see flow 1 above, which has the highest priority). In particular, this ensures that reply traffic is never dropped because of a Network Policy rule. However, this also means that ongoing connections are not affected if the K8s Network Policies are updated.

One thing to keep in mind is that for service traffic, these rules are applied after the packets have gone through the local gateway and through kube-proxy. At this point the ingress port is no longer the Pod port, but the local gateway port. Therefore we cannot use the port as the match condition to identify if the Pod has been applied a Network Policy - which is what we do for the IngressRuleTable -, but instead have to use the source IP address.

EgressDefaultTable (60)

This table complements EgressRuleTable for Network Policy egress rule implementation. In K8s, when a Network Policy is applied to a set of Pods, the default behavior for these Pods become "deny" (it becomes an isolated Pod). This table is in charge of dropping traffic originating from Pods to which a Network Policy (with an egress rule) is applied, and which did not match any of the whitelist rules.

Accordingly, based on our Network Policy example, we would expect to see flows to drop traffic originating from our 2 Pods (10.10.1.2 and 10.10.1.3), which is confirmed by dumping the flows:

1. table=60, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.2 actions=drop
2. table=60, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.3 actions=drop
3. table=60, priority=0 actions=goto_table:61

This table is also used to implement Antrea-native policy egress rules that are created in the Baseline Tier. Since the Baseline Tier is meant to be enforced after K8s NetworkPolicies, the corresponding flows will be created at a lower priority than K8s default drop flows. For example, a baseline rule to drop egress traffic to 10.0.10.0/24 will for a namespace will look like the following:

1. table=60, priority=80,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.11 actions=conjunction(5,1/2)
2. table=60, priority=80,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.10 actions=conjunction(5,1/2)
3. table=60, priority=80,ip,nw_dst=10.0.10.0/24 actions=conjunction(5,2)
4. table=60, priority=80,conj_id=5,ip actions=load:0x3->NXM_NX_REG5[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[20],resubmit(,61)

The table-miss flow entry, which is used for non-isolated Pods, forwards traffic to the next table EgressMetricsTable, then (L3ForwardingTable).

L3ForwardingTable (70)

This is the L3 routing table. It implements the following functionality:

  • Tunnelled traffic coming-in from a peer Node and destined to a local Pod is directly forwarded to the Pod. This requires setting the source MAC to the MAC of the local gateway interface and setting the destination MAC to the Pod's MAC address. Such traffic is identified by matching on the packet's destination MAC address (should be set to the Global Virtual MAC for all tunnelled traffic) and its destination IP address (should match the IP address of a local Pod). We therefore install one flow for each Pod created locally on the Node. For example:
table=70, priority=200,ip,dl_dst=aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff,nw_dst=10.10.0.2 actions=mod_dl_src:e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1,mod_dl_dst:12:9e:a6:47:d0:70,dec_ttl,goto_table:80
  • All tunnelled traffic destined to the local gateway (i.e. for which the destination IP matches the local gateway's IP) is forwarded to the gateway port by rewriting the destination MAC (from the Global Virtual MAC to the local gateway's MAC).
table=70, priority=200,ip,dl_dst=aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff,nw_dst=10.10.0.1 actions=mod_dl_dst:e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1,goto_table:80
  • All traffic destined to a remote Pod is forwarded through the appropriate tunnel. This means that we install one flow for each peer Node, each one matching the destination IP address of the packet against the Pod subnet for the Node. In case of a match the source MAC is set to the local gateway MAC, the destination MAC is set to the Global Virtual MAC and we set the OF tun_dst field to the appropriate value (i.e. the IP address of the remote gateway). Traffic then goes to ConntrackCommitTable, thus skipping L2ForwardingCalcTable and the ingress policy rules tables, which are not relevant for traffic destined to a tunnel (the destination port is the tunnel port and the ingress policy rules will be enforced at the destination Node). For a given peer Node, the flow may look like this:
table=70, priority=200,ip,nw_dst=10.10.1.0/24 actions=dec_ttl,mod_dl_src:e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1,mod_dl_dst:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff,load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG1[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[16],load:0xc0a84d65->NXM_NX_TUN_IPV4_DST[],goto_table:105

If none of the flows described above are hit, traffic goes directly to L2ForwardingCalcTable. This is the case for external traffic, whose destination is outside the cluster (such traffic has already been forwarded to the local gateway by the local source Pod, and only L2 switching is required), as well as for local Pod-to-Pod traffic.

table=70, priority=0 actions=goto_table:80

L2ForwardingCalcTable (80)

This is essentially the "dmac" table of the switch. We program one flow for each port (gateway port, Pod ports and tunnel port), as you can see if you dump the flows:

1. table=80, priority=200,dl_dst=e2:e5:a4:9b:1c:b1 actions=load:0x2->NXM_NX_REG1[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[16],goto_table:90
2. table=80, priority=200,dl_dst=12:9e:a6:47:d0:70 actions=load:0x3->NXM_NX_REG1[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[16],goto_table:90
3. table=80, priority=200,dl_dst=ba:a8:13:ca:ed:cf actions=load:0x4->NXM_NX_REG1[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[16],goto_table:90
4. table=80, priority=0 actions=goto_table:90

For each port flow (1 through 4 in the example above), we set bit 16 of the NXM_NX_REG0 register to indicate that there was a matching entry for the destination MAC address and that the packet must be forwarded. In the last table of the pipeline (L2ForwardingOutTable), we will drop all packets for which this bit is not set. We also use the NXM_NX_REG1 register to store the egress port for the packet, which will be used as a parameter to the output OpenFlow action in L2ForwardingOutTable.

All packets - whether they have a matching dmac entry or not - then goes to the next table, IngressRuleTable.

What about L2 multicast / broadcast traffic? ARP requests will never reach this table, as they will be handled by the OpenFlow normal action in the ArpResponderTable. As for the rest, if it is IP traffic, it will hit the "last" flow in this table and go to IngressRuleTable. Assuming it makes it to the last table of the pipeline (L2ForwardingOutTable), it will be dropped there since bit 16 of the NXM_NX_REG0 will not be set. Traffic which is non-ARP and non-IP (assuming any can be received by the switch) is actually dropped much earlier in the pipeline (SpoofGuardTable). In the future, we may need to support more cases for L2 multicast / broadcast traffic.

AntreaPolicyIngressRuleTable (85)

This table is very similar to AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable, but implements the ingress rules of Antrea-native Policies. Depending on the tier to which the policy belongs to, the rules will be installed in a table corresponding to that tier. The ingress table to tier mappings is as follows:

Baseline Tier     ->  IngressDefaultTable(100)
K8s NetworkPolicy ->  IngressRuleTable(90)
All other Tiers   ->  AntreaPolicyIngressRuleTable(85)

Again for this table, you will need to keep in mind the ACNP specification that we are using. Since the example ACNP resides in the Application tier, if you dump the flows for table 85, you should see something like this:

1. table=85, priority=64990,ct_state=-new+est,ip actions=resubmit(,105)
2. table=85, priority=14000,conj_id=4,ip actions=load:0x4->NXM_NX_REG3[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[20],resubmit(,101)
3. table=85, priority=14000,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.7 actions=conjunction(4,1/3)
4. table=85, priority=14000,ip,reg1=0x19c actions=conjunction(4,2/3)
5. table=85, priority=14000,tcp,tp_dst=80 actions=conjunction(4,3/3)
6. table=85, priority=0 actions=resubmit(,90)

As for AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable, flow 1 (highest priority) ensures that for established connections packets go straight to IngressMetricsTable, then L2ForwardingOutTable, with no other match required.

The rest of the flows read as follows: if the source IP address is in set {10.10.1.7}, and the destination OF port is in the set {412} (which correspond to IP addresses {10.10.1.6}), and the destination TCP port is in the set {80}, then use conjunction action with id 4, which loads the conj_id 4 into NXM_NX_REG3, a register used by Antrea internally to indicate the disposition of the packet is Drop, and forward the packet to IngressMetricsTable for it to be dropped.

Otherwise, go to IngressRuleTable if no conjunctive flow above priority 0 is matched. This corresponds to the case where the packet is not matched by any of the Antrea-native policy ingress rules in any tier (except for the "baseline" tier). One notable difference is how we use OF ports to identify the destination of the traffic, while we use IP addresses in AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable to identify the source of the traffic. More details regarding this can be found in the following IngressRuleTable section.

As seen in AntreaPolicyEgressRuleTable, the default action is to evaluate K8s Network Policy IngressRuleTable and a AntreaPolicyIngressDefaultTable does not exist.

IngressRuleTable (90)

This table is very similar to EgressRuleTable, but implements ingress rules for Network Policies. Once again, you will need to keep mind the Network Policy specification that we are using. We have 2 Pods running on the same Node, with IP addresses 10.10.1.2 to 10.10.1.3. They are allowed to talk to each other using TCP on port 80, but nothing else.

If you dump the flows for this table, you should see something like this:

1. table=90, priority=210,ct_state=-new+est,ip actions=goto_table:101
2. table=90, priority=210,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.1 actions=goto_table:105
3. table=90, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.2 actions=conjunction(3,1/3)
4. table=90, priority=200,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.3 actions=conjunction(3,1/3)
5. table=90, priority=200,ip,reg1=0x3 actions=conjunction(3,2/3)
6. table=90, priority=200,ip,reg1=0x4 actions=conjunction(3,2/3)
7. table=90, priority=200,tcp,tp_dst=80 actions=conjunction(3,3/3)
8. table=90, priority=190,conj_id=3,ip actions=load:0x3->NXM_NX_REG6[],ct(commit,table=101,zone=65520,exec(load:0x3->NXM_NX_CT_LABEL[0..31]))
9. table=90, priority=0 actions=goto_table:100

As for EgressRuleTable, flow 1 (highest priority) ensures that for established connections - as a reminder all connections are committed in ConntrackCommitTable - packets go straight to IngressMetricsTable, then L2ForwardingOutTable, with no other match required.

Flow 2 ensures that traffic from the local gateway cannot be dropped because of Network Policies. This ensures that K8s liveness probes can go through.

The rest of the flows read as follows: if the source IP address is in set {10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3}, and the destination OF port is in the set {3, 4} (which correspond to IP addresses {10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3}, and the destination TCP port is in the set {80}, then use conjunction action with id 3, which stores the conj_id 3 in ct_label[0..31] for egress metrics collection purposes, and forwards the packet to IngressMetricsTable, then L2ForwardingOutTable. Otherwise, go to IngressDefaultTable. One notable difference is how we use OF ports to identify the destination of the traffic, while we use IP addresses in EgressRuleTable to identify the source of the traffic. We do this as an increased security measure in case a local Pod is misbehaving and trying to access another local Pod using the correct destination MAC address but a different destination IP address to bypass an egress Network Policy rule. This is also why the Network Policy ingress rules are enforced after the egress port has been determined.

IngressDefaultTable (100)

This table is similar in its purpose to EgressDefaultTable, and it complements IngressRuleTable for Network Policy ingress rule implementation. In K8s, when a Network Policy is applied to a set of Pods, the default behavior for these Pods become "deny" (it becomes an isolated Pod). This table is in charge of dropping traffic destined to Pods to which a Network Policy (with an ingress rule) is applied, and which did not match any of the whitelist rules.

Accordingly, based on our Network Policy example, we would expect to see flows to drop traffic destined to our 2 Pods (3 and 4), which is confirmed by dumping the flows:

1. table=100, priority=200,ip,reg1=0x3 actions=drop
2. table=100, priority=200,ip,reg1=0x4 actions=drop
3. table=100, priority=0 actions=goto_table:105

Similar to the EgressDefaultTable, this table is also used to implement Antrea-native policy ingress rules that are created in the Baseline Tier. Since the Baseline Tier is meant to be enforced after K8s NetworkPolicies, the corresponding flows will be created at a lower priority than K8s default drop flows. For example, a baseline rule to isolate ingress traffic for a namespace will look like the following:

table=100, priority=80,ip,reg1=0xb actions=conjunction(6,2/3)
table=100, priority=80,ip,reg1=0xc actions=conjunction(6,2/3)
table=100, priority=80,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.9 actions=conjunction(6,1/3)
table=100, priority=80,ip,nw_src=10.10.1.7 actions=conjunction(6,1/3)
table=100, priority=80,tcp,tp_dst=8080 actions=conjunction(6,3/3)
table=100, priority=80,conj_id=6,ip actions=load:0x6->NXM_NX_REG3[],load:0x1->NXM_NX_REG0[20],resubmit(,101)

The table-miss flow entry, which is used for non-isolated Pods, forwards traffic to the next table (ConntrackCommitTable).

ConntrackCommitTable (105)

As mentioned before, this table is in charge of committing all new connections which are not dropped because of Network Policies. If you dump the flows for this table, you should see something like this:

1. table=105, priority=200,ct_state=+new+trk,ip,reg0=0x1/0xffff actions=ct(commit,table=110,zone=65520,exec(load:0x20->NXM_NX_CT_MARK[]))
2. table=105, priority=190,ct_state=+new+trk,ip actions=ct(commit,table=110,zone=65520)
3. table=105, priority=0 actions=goto_table:110

Flow 1 ensures that we commit connections initiated through the gateway interface and mark them with a ct_mark of 0x20. This ensures that ConntrackStateTable can perform its functions correctly and rewrite the destination MAC address to the gateway's MAC address for connections which require it. Such connections include Pod-to-ClusterIP traffic. Note that the 0x20 mark is applied to all connections initiated through the gateway (i.e. for which the first packet of the connection was received through the gateway) and that ConntrackStateTable will perform the destination MAC address for the reply traffic of all such connections. In some cases (the ones described for ConntrackStateTable), this rewrite is necessary. For others (e.g. a connection from the host to a local Pod), this rewrite is not necessary but is also harmless, as the destination MAC is already correct.

Flow 2 commits all other new connections.

All traffic then goes to the next table (L2ForwardingOutTable).

L2ForwardingOutTable (110)

It is a simple table and if you dump the flows for this table, you should only see 2 flows:

1. table=110, priority=200,ip,reg0=0x10000/0x10000 actions=output:NXM_NX_REG1[]
2. table=110, priority=0, actions=drop

The first flow outputs all unicast packets to the correct port (the port was resolved by the "dmac" table, L2ForwardingCalcTable). IP packets for which L2ForwardingCalcTable did not set bit 16 of NXM_NX_REG0 will be dropped.

Getting Started

To help you get started, see the documentation.